Learning from Felix Romuliana Gamzigrad, Serbia and Dionysus

Ancient Balkans and Dionysus Cult

Symbols and Signs Research by Nataša Pantović

The so called sacred topography of the Balkans, the northern frontier of the Roman Empire, from the banks of the Danube to the Adriatic Sea, to the south of the Peninsula towards Thessaloniki in Greece, and beyond, towards Malta, Cyprus, Egypt, is the Ancient Europe, hosting most amazing cultures of a number of the oldest advanced civilizations 

Dionysus and the Maenads amphora by the Amasis Painter 530 BC in Paris

Dionysus and the Maenads amphora by the Amasis Painter 530 BC in Paris

Felix Romuliana, Gamzigrad, Serbia and Dio-NySuS 

The village Gamzigrad, 200 AC, is at the banks of the Crni Timok River in Serbia. In 1984 the fragment made of limestone, with an inscription FELIX ROMULIANA, confirmed that Romula’s villa was the memorial of Galerius, co-ruler of Diocletian and Constantine, whose mother was Romulina. Above the village at Magura hill around one kilometre from the main east gate of Romuliana, archaeologists have discovered an ancient grave yard from 300 AC, built on a sacred mound where burial and apotheosis of Galerius’ mother Romula and Galerius himself took place. So the palace, the temples, and the sacred complex was dedicated to Ancient Greek Gods, the emperor and his mother, the post mortal Goddess Romula, who themselves became gods by the consecration act at the mount Magura. 

gamzigrad-mosaic-of-the-temple-serbia-300-ac-filix-romula-ancient-temple

Gamzigrad mosaic of the Ancient Temple Complex-300 AC

Galerius worshiped the Dionysus and has deified his mother Romula and himself. Dionysus was the ancient god of wine, fertility, theatre, and religious ecstasy. His Roman name was Bacchus. We find him as a God as early as 1500 BC, worshiped by Mycenean Greeks. 

The mosaic representation of Dionysus and the wall relief depicting a sleeping Ariadne symbolize the idea of death – and resurrection, that is, they indicate the two acts of the apotheosis whose impressive material evidence was discovered... The Gamzigrad depiction of Dionysus is the visual representation of this god’s permanent aspiration to bring humans into the world of gods after making them immortal. Dionysus is the saviour of souls and the one who bestows eternal life. Like Dionysus and his mother Semele who joined the gods at the Mount Olympus after Dionysus’ triumphal expedition to India, Galerius, the new Dionysus, and his mother Romula ascended to heaven from the top of Magura hill.”

Maja Živić, Felix Romuliana – Gamzigrad, University of Archaeology, Belgrade, 2011. 

The striving for liberation of the Dionysian cult is at the core of Ancient Greek . It is from the Dionysian rites that the idea of the soul related to the divine and the immortality was passed to the Humankind. 

 

Gamzigtad ancient temple Serbia 300 AC

Christian Martyrs about Sirmium and Niš

Two cities, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), and Nicaea or Nicea (/naɪˈsiːə/; Greek: Νίκαια, Níkaia) = NiŠ or NiČ, both located in Serbia, are the cities whose wealth, cult and architecture, remind us, mortals, of the time of Balkans wealth and prosperity. 

Dušan, my best friend comes from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), and he tells me, that while growing up, he used to play digging for gold in the archaeological sites of the area. Believe it or not, kids would collect all sort of ancient jars. Already established in the 1st century AC, it was at its peak during the Diocletian’s persecutions during 303-305 AC, so the city got its nick-name as the city of martyrs. By the way, my niece carries the name of Anastasia, that has left us with a church in Sirmium, and the cult of Anastasia, a young maid who also suffered and died for Christ, in Sirmium, at the beginning of the 4th century AC. 

Sirmium was first mentioned in the 4th century BC. It is located on the bank of the river Sava, in the area called Srem of the northern Serbia. The site is today protected as an Archaeological Site of Exceptional Importance. Sirmium had 100,000 inhabitants and was one of the largest cities in Europe of its time. The amount of grain imported between 1 AD and 400 AD was enough to feed 700,000 people 

Felix Romuliana Gamzigrad, Serbia

960px-Gamzigrad-Romuliana,_Palace_of_Galerius-122721

Gamzigrad-Romuliana Palace of Galerius and Temple of Dio-NiSuS

The village Gamzigrad, 200 AC, is at the banks of the Crni Timok River in Serbia. In 1984 the fragment made of limestone,with the inscription FELIX ROMULIANA, confirmed that Romula’s villa was the memorial of Galerius, coruler of Diocletian and Constantine. Above the village at Magura hill around one kilometer from the main east gate of Romuliana, archeologists have recently discovered an ancient grave yard from 300 AC, built on a sacred mound where burial and apotheosis of Galerius’mother Romula and Galerius himself took place. So the palace, the temples, and sacred complex were,dedicated to Ancient Greek Gods, the emperor and his mother, and the post mortal Goddess Romula, who themselves became gods by the consecration act at the mount Magura.

Galerius worshiped Dio-NySuS and has deified his mother Romula and himself creating a temple and a ceremony to support this practice. At the time, an emporer can “qualify” to become “God” or a “Dio”. Apparently it was a better practice, to first deify own mother, so that the divineity of the Empiror is passed by a blood-line.

The floors of the rooms of the Palace and the Temples were paved with precious stone. And under the floors the archeologists found an elaborate system of channels used for heating the entire room. Underfloor Heating! At that time! Wow! The mosaics in the rooms resemble most closly the ones from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, from the island of Delos.

Northern Temple Gamzigrad

Gamzigrad mosaic of the temple Serbia 300 AC Filix Romula

Gamzigrad mosaic of the temple Serbia 300 AC Filix Romula

The temple is similar to the Jupiter temple at Dio-Cletian Palace in Split, built in 305 AD. The remains include a high podium, cross-shaped crypt, stairway and sacrificial altar. It was dedicated to the Goddess Libera

Belief in the triumph of Dionysus was the belief in the cyclical rebirth and.in the return to the Golden Age with Saturn as the divine power.

All the sculptures point to Dionysus / Galerius, and Romula, the ideological concept of the tetrarchy, being the alpha and omega. Jupiter is present at Gamzigrad as the supreme god.

In the spring of 305, Diocletian proclaimed him Augustus in Nicomedia. On the same day, the 1st of May, Constantius who died a year later, was proclaimed Augustus while Galerius’nephew Maximinus was nominated Caesares.

His principal residence before 299 was most likely in Sirmium. He claimed that he was Mars’s son and Romulus’s brother, and that he was begot, like Alexander the Great, by the god himself, who approached his mother Romula in the form of a dragon.

Historical sources tell us that in the winter of 302 AC Galerius stayed in Diocletian’s palace in Nicomedia, to persuade him, under the influence of his mother, to stop the Christians coversions.

The entrance is ornamented with a luxurious mosaic with the image of the Greek god Dio-Nysus. Parts of a sculpture of Galerius depicted as Pantocrator (ruler of Universe) have been found throughout the buildings, a left hand holding a globe of red porphyry.

The other architectural elements are the relief ornaments symbolizing immortality: the picking of grapes, the intertwined vine. The mother, Diva Romula got the temple in the north part of the palace. There were other 2 females living in the estate, the wife Valeria and the daughter Maxi-Milla.

The Palace walls are covered with marble, green porphyry and frescoes. The marble sculptures depicting the Greek gods are made according to 5th and 4th century BC sculptural art.

In the very vicinity of the temple a great number of sculptures of white marble was found, with the most impressive heads of Jupiter and Hercules. The tradition was for the rulers to be named after Jupiter and Hercules and that the annual holiday is set up on the day when the augusti identified themselves with Jupiter and caesari with Hercules – the day which became their birthday (geminus natalis).Ancient Balkans 

Ancient European Cities Archaeological Findings dating from 7,000 BC to 400 BC 

The following table indicated the major Neolithic Europe cities and the time when they were formed.

 

City 

Country 

7000 - 6000 

5000 - 4000 

4000 - 3000 

3000 – 2000 

1600 - 1300 

1000 

600 

400 

Athens 

Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

10000 

3000 

100000 

350000 

Argos 

Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

1000 

 
 

30000 

Aegina 

Greek Island 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

20000 

Akrotiri (Santorini) 

Minoan  Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

15000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Agrigento 

Sicily, Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

200000 

Cerveteri 

Rome, Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

30000 

 
 

Choirokoitia 

Cyprus 

2600 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Corinth 

Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

90000 

Crotone 

Sicily, Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

50000 

Dobrovody 

Ukraine 

 
 

 
 

15000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Stonehenge 

the UK 

 
 

 
 

 
 

4000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Fedorovka 

Ukraine 

 
 

6000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Gournia, Knossos, Malia 

Crete 

 
 

 
 

 
 

1000 

4000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Heuneburg 

Danube, Germany 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

10000 

 
 

Ischia 

Island in Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

10,000 
 

 
 

Knossos 

Crete 

100 

1000 

 
 

1500 

50000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Lepenski Vir 

Serbia, Danube 

1000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Mycenae 

Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

20000 

30000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Manika

Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

10,000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Malta 

Malta 

 
 

 
 

 
 

10,000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Maydanets 

Russia 

 
 

 
 

30000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Nea Nikomedeia 

Macedonia Greece 

500 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Okoliste 

Bosnia & Herzegovina 

 
 

3000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Palaikastro 

Crete 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

18000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Populonia 

Italy Island 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

30000 

 
 

Tarquinia 

Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

25000 

 
 

Vinča Belo Brdo 

Danube, Belgrade, Serbia 

 
 

2500 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Veii 

Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

40000 

 
 

Volsinii 

Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Vulci 

Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

25000 

 
 

Sesklo 

Vollos Greece 

300 

5000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Sparta 

City State of Ancient Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

40000 

Syracuse, Sicily 

Sicily, Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

800000 

Sybaris 

South Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

200000 

Solnitsata 

Danube, Bulgaria 

 
 

350 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Tiryns 

Mycanaen  Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

1,500 

 

10000 

15000 

 
 

 
 

Nebelivka 

Ukraine 

 
 

1700 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Taranto 

South Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

200,000 

Talianki 

Ukraine 

 
 

 
 

20000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Thebes, Greece 

Mycanean Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

4,000 

8000 

 
 

 
 

30,000 – 60,000 

Los Millares 

Spain 

 
 

 
 

 
 

2,000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Pavlopetri 

Underwater European city, Greece 

 
 

 
 

 
 

500 

2000 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Rome 

Italy 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

7000 

80000 

130000 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Largest cities of North Africa and Middle East, Ethiopia, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Turkey were booming with the cities as early as 3,000 BC. Some examples are: 

 

Babylon 

Iraq 

1,700 BC 

60,000 people 
 

Memphis 

Egypt 

3,300 BC 

20,000 people 
 

Çatalhöyük 

Turkey 

6,500 BC 

10,000 people 
 

Neolithic Euorpe Archaeological  Remains and Research

The archaeological remains found on the Neolithic sites of the Mediterranean area include a script that has stayed within our A-to-SH for 4,000+ years.  

Observing the above table of “Roman” territories, I have come across the description of the history of Paris. “Paris, France, was founded around the end of the 3rd century BC by the Gauls who were called Parisii. In 52 BC Julius Caesar's legions conquered the territory, founding the Roman city, Lutetia on the earlier settlement.” Wikipedia, Paris. Interestingly, for some reason we do not call Paris, Roman... 

 

 

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